HEAT3D Accuracy and Field trials

Two sets of field trials have been run comparing HEAT3D’s measurements with standard ISO 9869 heat flux plate ones. The first using an early version of HEAT3D before the investigations carried out at the Energy House. The second set afterwards, incorporating several significant innovations and improvements to HEAT3D’s methods and apparatus based on the results of the R&D.

Field trials on twenty-five walls were run on multiple properties ranging from an 18th century farmhouse, solid brick Victorian terraced through to new-build eco houses with U values ranging between and 0.1 and 2 W/m2K.

Both HEAT3D and standard ISO 9869 heat flux measurements were performed over a period of 2 weeks at each site. The locations are shown on the map below.

This graph shows the results from the first field trial using the early version of HEAT3D. The results showed poor agreement in terms of HEAT3D’s heat flow measurement accuracy and repeatability compared to the calibrated heat flux plates (HFP).

First Field trial results

Several novel breakthroughs were made in solving HEAT3D’s measurement accuracy problems from the results of the first field trial and R&D at the Energy House. The next graph shows the results from the 2nd set of field trials using the latest version of HEAT3D with these improvements.  The error bars for both the HEAT3D and Heat Flux plate values are also shown. There is an almost perfect alignment within the limits of measurement accuracy.

Second field trial results

The innovations from the R&D work have dramatically improved HEAT3D’s accuracy and repeatability for measuring heat flow. HEAT3D can now measure heat flow to a proven accuracy of 5% for a 20W/㎡ heat flow. This is the same order as that obtained using industry standard Heat Flux plates such as the Hukseflux HFP01.



HEAT3D and the Energy House

HEAT3D has been successfully tested in the unique Energy House facility at Salford University and proved to measure heat flow accurately. The Energy house is the only fully climate controlled research facility in the world.

The test walls were massively instrumented with calibrated Heat flux plates and thermocouples so HEAT3D’s results could be compared with the standards based values using current best practice ( ISO 9869 parts 1 & 2).

Energy house instrumentation

This is a HEAT3D thermal model captured from one of the surveys. You can view it in full AR mode in Safari on an iOS device with iOS 12 or later. Just tap on the the image to launch the iOS AR viewer.

HEAT3D captured IR model

Several significant novel improvements to the initial HEAT3D apparatus and method were made based on the experimental results. HEAT3D was then re-tested. The graph below shows the comparison between the heat flow measured by conventional heat flux plates (blue) and HEAT3D surveys (orange ) over a 2 week period with the Energy House driving varying heating and temperature regimes including a very artificial sunny day right at the end where the heat flow went negative. HEAT3D’s measurements tracked perfectly.

HEAT3D and HFP measurements over a 2 week testing period


Comparison of HEAT3D heat flow measurements with the calibrated Heat Flux plate ones